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Mechanisms of soil stabilization with liquid ionic stabilizer Katz, Lynn E et al

By: Publication details: Transportation Research Record, 2001Description: nr 1757, s. 50-7Subject(s): Bibl.nr: VTI P8167:1757Location: Abstract: Numerous commercial suppliers are marketing liquid chemical products for stabilizing pavement subgrade and base soils. These nontraditional chemical stabilizers may offer viable alternatives for stabilizing sulfate-rich soils where conventional lime or cement treatment can lead to excessive soil expansion. Typically sold as concentrated liquids that are diluted in water before application, these products may be less expensive to use than lime or cement. However, many transportation agencies are hesitant to specify nontraditional liquid stabilizers without better information on the stabilizing mechanisms and documented field experiences. To identify the mechanisms associated with one class of these products, a representative ionic soil stabilizer and a sodium montmorillonite clay were selected for a detailed physical-chemical study. Laboratory testing included chromatography, spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and standard titration analyses. These tests have shown that the principal active constituents of the selected ionic stabilizer are d-limonene (a by-product of citrus processing) and sulfuric acid, which react to form a concentrated, low-pH solution of sulfonated limonene. The observed changes in clay chemistry following treatment indicated that this product would stabilize a soil by altering the clay lattice. The result is the formation of a more highly weathered, less-expansive clay structure. On the basis of this understanding of the underlying mechanisms, ionic stabilizers applied at sufficiently high application mass ratios may improve the properties of certain soils on some highway construction projects.
Item type: Reports, conferences, monographs
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Numerous commercial suppliers are marketing liquid chemical products for stabilizing pavement subgrade and base soils. These nontraditional chemical stabilizers may offer viable alternatives for stabilizing sulfate-rich soils where conventional lime or cement treatment can lead to excessive soil expansion. Typically sold as concentrated liquids that are diluted in water before application, these products may be less expensive to use than lime or cement. However, many transportation agencies are hesitant to specify nontraditional liquid stabilizers without better information on the stabilizing mechanisms and documented field experiences. To identify the mechanisms associated with one class of these products, a representative ionic soil stabilizer and a sodium montmorillonite clay were selected for a detailed physical-chemical study. Laboratory testing included chromatography, spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and standard titration analyses. These tests have shown that the principal active constituents of the selected ionic stabilizer are d-limonene (a by-product of citrus processing) and sulfuric acid, which react to form a concentrated, low-pH solution of sulfonated limonene. The observed changes in clay chemistry following treatment indicated that this product would stabilize a soil by altering the clay lattice. The result is the formation of a more highly weathered, less-expansive clay structure. On the basis of this understanding of the underlying mechanisms, ionic stabilizers applied at sufficiently high application mass ratios may improve the properties of certain soils on some highway construction projects.

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