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Design and installation of horizontal wick drains for landslide stabilization Santi, Paul M ; Elifrits, C Dale ; Liljegren, James A

By: Santi, Paul MContributor(s): Elifrits, C Dale | Liljegren, James APublication details: Transportation Research Record, 2001Description: nr 1757, s. 58-66Subject(s): USA | Slope stability | Landslide | Prevention | | Horizontal | | Installation | Silting | Performance | Filter | Size | Recommendations | 62 | 37Bibl.nr: VTI P8167:1757Location: Abstract: One of the most effective options to stabilize landslides is to reduce the amount of water they contain by installing horizontal drains. A new type of horizontal drain material, geosynthetic wick drains, and a new installation method, driving drains rather than drilling them, were evaluated. Horizontal wick drains offer several advantages over conventional horizontal drains: They resist clogging, are inexpensive, may be deformed without rupture, and may be installed by unskilled laborers with a minimal investment in equipment. More than 100 drains were installed at eight sites in Missouri, Colorado, and Indiana using bulldozers, backhoes, and standard wick drain-driving cranes. Drains have been driven 30 m through materials with standard penetration test values as high as 28. Both experience and research indicate that drains should be installed in clusters that fan outward, aiming for average spacing of 8 m for typical clayey soils. As with drilled drains, initially some drains are expected to be dry, although these drains often become active during wet periods and serve as an important part of the overall slope stabilization scheme. Drain effectiveness is expected to build over the first few years as the effects of soil smear during drain installation are removed, peaking at 3 to 6 years after installation. The effectiveness is then expected to decrease as fine particles slowly clog the drain pores. From published tests, clogging appears to occur slowly enough in typical clay soils that the drain life is comparable with the project life.
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One of the most effective options to stabilize landslides is to reduce the amount of water they contain by installing horizontal drains. A new type of horizontal drain material, geosynthetic wick drains, and a new installation method, driving drains rather than drilling them, were evaluated. Horizontal wick drains offer several advantages over conventional horizontal drains: They resist clogging, are inexpensive, may be deformed without rupture, and may be installed by unskilled laborers with a minimal investment in equipment. More than 100 drains were installed at eight sites in Missouri, Colorado, and Indiana using bulldozers, backhoes, and standard wick drain-driving cranes. Drains have been driven 30 m through materials with standard penetration test values as high as 28. Both experience and research indicate that drains should be installed in clusters that fan outward, aiming for average spacing of 8 m for typical clayey soils. As with drilled drains, initially some drains are expected to be dry, although these drains often become active during wet periods and serve as an important part of the overall slope stabilization scheme. Drain effectiveness is expected to build over the first few years as the effects of soil smear during drain installation are removed, peaking at 3 to 6 years after installation. The effectiveness is then expected to decrease as fine particles slowly clog the drain pores. From published tests, clogging appears to occur slowly enough in typical clay soils that the drain life is comparable with the project life.

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