The VTI National Transport Library Catalogue

External costs of transport : accident, environmental and congestion costs in Western Europe Banfi, Silvia et al

By: Banfi, SilviaPublication details: Zürich INFRAS, Consulting Group for Policy Analysis and Implementation, 2000; IWW, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Description: 14 sSubject(s): France | Transport | Cost | External effect | Accident | Environment | | Europe | Transport mode | Statistics | Calculation | 02 | J13 | Prc | PrdOnline resources: Publikation/Publication Abstract: This study is an update and extension of a former UIC study on external effects (1995). It aims at improving the empirical basis of external costs of transport based on the actual state of the art of cost estimation methodologies. The following dimensions are considered: - Cost categories: Accidents, noise, air pollution (health, material damages, biosphere), climate change risks, other environmental and non-environmental effects and congestion. - Countries: EUR 17 (EU member states, Switzerland, Norway). - Base year: Detailed results for 1995 and rough estimate for 2010 (trend development, mainly based on emission trend forecasts of an EUROSTAT project TRENDS). - Differentiation of transport means: - Road transport: Private car, motorcycles, bus, light goods vehicles, heavy goods vehicles, - Rail transport: Passenger and freight, - Air transport: Passenger and freight, - Waterborne transport: Inland water transport (freight). - Functional and regional differentiation: - Urban and interurban passenger traffic, - Short and long distance freight traffic, - Application for point to point relations (two passenger and freight corridors). Two study outputs can be distinguished: - Total and average costs per country and means of transport: National cost accounts for the base year considered reflect the importance of each cost component. The results are mainly of statistical value. National average values can be - at least in some cases - a basis for pricing strategies and for socio-economic evaluation of infrastructure investments. - Marginal costs per means of transport and traffic situation reflect the additional costs per additional unit of transport. They represent a European average which could be used as basis for the dimensioning of pricing instruments according to the approach of Social Marginal Costs Pricing, as the European Commission proposes in its White Book on 'Fair Payment of Infrastructure Use'. Throughout the whole report, congestion costs are treated as a separate issue, since their relevance and measurement is quite different from the ones of other costs categories, especially in regard to total costs. Three different approaches were used; they different values from 0.5% to 3.7% of GDP.
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This study is an update and extension of a former UIC study on external effects (1995). It aims at improving the empirical basis of external costs of transport based on the actual state of the art of cost estimation methodologies. The following dimensions are considered: - Cost categories: Accidents, noise, air pollution (health, material damages, biosphere), climate change risks, other environmental and non-environmental effects and congestion. - Countries: EUR 17 (EU member states, Switzerland, Norway). - Base year: Detailed results for 1995 and rough estimate for 2010 (trend development, mainly based on emission trend forecasts of an EUROSTAT project TRENDS). - Differentiation of transport means: - Road transport: Private car, motorcycles, bus, light goods vehicles, heavy goods vehicles, - Rail transport: Passenger and freight, - Air transport: Passenger and freight, - Waterborne transport: Inland water transport (freight). - Functional and regional differentiation: - Urban and interurban passenger traffic, - Short and long distance freight traffic, - Application for point to point relations (two passenger and freight corridors). Two study outputs can be distinguished: - Total and average costs per country and means of transport: National cost accounts for the base year considered reflect the importance of each cost component. The results are mainly of statistical value. National average values can be - at least in some cases - a basis for pricing strategies and for socio-economic evaluation of infrastructure investments. - Marginal costs per means of transport and traffic situation reflect the additional costs per additional unit of transport. They represent a European average which could be used as basis for the dimensioning of pricing instruments according to the approach of Social Marginal Costs Pricing, as the European Commission proposes in its White Book on 'Fair Payment of Infrastructure Use'. Throughout the whole report, congestion costs are treated as a separate issue, since their relevance and measurement is quite different from the ones of other costs categories, especially in regard to total costs. Three different approaches were used; they different values from 0.5% to 3.7% of GDP.

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